In Joint replacement surgery the damaged cartilage and any associated loss of bone structure is a resurfaced and removing the damaged joint, and preserving the muscles and ligaments for support and function. The replaced joint is made of titanium, cobalt chrome, stainless steel, ceramic material, OXINIUM and polyethylene (plastic). It can be affixed to the bone with bone cement or it can be press-fit, which allows bone to grow into the implant. Once the joint replacement is in place, its motion and function are restored through physical therapy. The most common joint replacement surgeries are Hip and Knee.
Knee joint replacement is a procedure that replaces an injured or ailing knee with an artificial man made joint called a prosthesis. Damaged cartilage and bone are removed from the knee joint. Man-made pieces are then placed in the knee. The prosthesis is made of metal alloys, plastics, and polymers. It simulates the function of a knee. Replacement knees can be custom tailored to meet your needs. When selecting a prosthetic knee, your doctor will take into account your age, weight, activity level, and overall health.
The replacement part of Lower end of the thigh bone (femur) is usually made of metal. The replacement part of Upper end of the shin bone (tibia) usually made from metal and a strong plastic liner.
The replacement part of your Knee cap (patella) is usually made from a strong plastic. Knee replacement is usually only recommended after other, less invasive, treatment options have failed. First-line treatment options include losing weight, medications, physical therapy, and assistant devices such as a cane or a knee brace.
The decreased knee utility identifies rigid and aching knee and needs knee substitution surgery to enhance their functionality. Despite the reality that getting respite from joint ache is the essential explanation behind knee substitution, the other expected benefits comprise:
The procedure of knee replacement surgery involves removal of the damaged bone of the knee joint and replacement with prosthesis or an artificial joint made of metal alloys, high grade plastics and polymers.
During the surgery, the knee is kept in bent position so that the surface of the knee is fully exposed. An incision of 6-12 inches is made after which the muscles, kneecap and connective tissues are moved aside to expose the damaged joint surface. After smoothening the bone's rough surface, the prosthesis is inserted.
Hip Replacement Surgery also known as arthroplasty is a surgical procedure which involves replacement of the damaged parts of the hip joint with new artificial parts. The artificial part or prosthesis is made of metal which improves mobility of the hip and relieves pain.
The most common cause of damage of the hip joint is osteoarthritis. The other conditions which lead to hip replacement surgery are rheumatoid arthritis, osteonecrosis, injury and bone tumours.
During a hip replacement surgery, a 6-8 inch incision is made over the side of the hip through the muscle and the damaged bone tissue and cartilage are removed. The head of the femur and acetabulum are replaced with new artificial parts.
Now-a-days surgeons perform minimally invasive hip replacement.
Two kinds of artificial parts are available. They are cemented parts and non-cemented parts. A usual Hip replacement surgery lasts for 1 to 2 hours.